Pediatric Annals, by Stephanie Coury et.al.
It is estimated that at least 8% to 10% of children diagnosed with cancer have an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome. Pediatricians may be called upon to (1) identify children with symptoms suggestive of cancer that require further diagnostic testing, (2) identify children who should be referred to cancer genetics based on their personal and family histories, and (3) provide primary care to children who have an inherited cancer syndrome. This review article provides a list of clinical warning signs suggestive of childhood malignancy, discusses the personal and family history "red flags" suggestive of hereditary cancer, offers checklists to help identify patients who are candidates for cancer genetics evaluation, and describes features of the major pediatric cancer syndromes involving solid tumors and surveillance guidelines. This review aims to provide the pediatrician with the tools needed to recognize, refer, and help manage children at risk for pediatric cancer syndromes.